Danger
This is a “Hazardous Materials” module. You should ONLY use it if you’re 100% absolutely sure that you know what you’re doing because this module is full of land mines, dragons, and dinosaurs with laser guns.
Message digests (Hashing)¶
- class cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.Hash(algorithm)[source]¶
A cryptographic hash function takes an arbitrary block of data and calculates a fixed-size bit string (a digest), such that different data results (with a high probability) in different digests.
This is an implementation of
HashContext
meant to be used withHashAlgorithm
implementations to provide an incremental interface to calculating various message digests.>>> from cryptography.hazmat.primitives import hashes >>> digest = hashes.Hash(hashes.SHA256()) >>> digest.update(b"abc") >>> digest.update(b"123") >>> digest.finalize() b'l\xa1=R\xcap\xc8\x83\xe0\xf0\xbb\x10\x1eBZ\x89\xe8bM\xe5\x1d\xb2\xd29%\x93\xafj\x84\x11\x80\x90'
Keep in mind that attacks against cryptographic hashes only get stronger with time, and that often algorithms that were once thought to be strong, become broken. Because of this it’s important to include a plan for upgrading the hash algorithm you use over time. For more information, see Lifetimes of cryptographic hash functions.
- Parameters
algorithm – A
HashAlgorithm
instance such as those described in below.- Raises
cryptography.exceptions.UnsupportedAlgorithm – This is raised if the provided
algorithm
is unsupported.
- update(data)[source]¶
- copy()[source]¶
Copy this
Hash
instance, usually so that you may callfinalize()
to get an intermediate digest value while we continue to callupdate()
on the original instance.- Returns
A new instance of
Hash
that can be updated and finalized independently of the original instance.- Raises
- finalize()[source]¶
Finalize the current context and return the message digest as bytes.
After
finalize
has been called this object can no longer be used andupdate()
,copy()
, andfinalize()
will raise anAlreadyFinalized
exception.- Return bytes
The message digest as bytes.
SHA-2 family¶
- class cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.SHA224[source]¶
SHA-224 is a cryptographic hash function from the SHA-2 family and is standardized by NIST. It produces a 224-bit message digest.
- class cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.SHA256[source]¶
SHA-256 is a cryptographic hash function from the SHA-2 family and is standardized by NIST. It produces a 256-bit message digest.
- class cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.SHA384[source]¶
SHA-384 is a cryptographic hash function from the SHA-2 family and is standardized by NIST. It produces a 384-bit message digest.
- class cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.SHA512[source]¶
SHA-512 is a cryptographic hash function from the SHA-2 family and is standardized by NIST. It produces a 512-bit message digest.
BLAKE2¶
BLAKE2 is a cryptographic hash function specified in RFC 7693. BLAKE2’s design makes it immune to length-extension attacks, an advantage over the SHA-family of hashes.
Note
While the RFC specifies keying, personalization, and salting features, these are not supported at this time due to limitations in OpenSSL 1.1.0.
- class cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.BLAKE2b(digest_size)[source]¶
BLAKE2b is optimized for 64-bit platforms and produces an 1 to 64-byte message digest.
- Parameters
digest_size (int) – The desired size of the hash output in bytes. Only
64
is supported at this time.- Raises
ValueError – If the
digest_size
is invalid.
- class cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.BLAKE2s(digest_size)[source]¶
BLAKE2s is optimized for 8 to 32-bit platforms and produces a 1 to 32-byte message digest.
- Parameters
digest_size (int) – The desired size of the hash output in bytes. Only
32
is supported at this time.- Raises
ValueError – If the
digest_size
is invalid.
SHA-3 family¶
SHA-3 is the most recent NIST secure hash algorithm standard. Despite the larger number SHA-3 is not considered to be better than SHA-2. Instead, it uses a significantly different internal structure so that if an attack appears against SHA-2 it is unlikely to apply to SHA-3. SHA-3 is significantly slower than SHA-2 so at this time most users should choose SHA-2.
- class cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.SHA3_224[source]¶
New in version 2.5.
SHA3/224 is a cryptographic hash function from the SHA-3 family and is standardized by NIST. It produces a 224-bit message digest.
- class cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.SHA3_256[source]¶
New in version 2.5.
SHA3/256 is a cryptographic hash function from the SHA-3 family and is standardized by NIST. It produces a 256-bit message digest.
- class cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.SHA3_384[source]¶
New in version 2.5.
SHA3/384 is a cryptographic hash function from the SHA-3 family and is standardized by NIST. It produces a 384-bit message digest.
- class cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.SHA3_512[source]¶
New in version 2.5.
SHA3/512 is a cryptographic hash function from the SHA-3 family and is standardized by NIST. It produces a 512-bit message digest.
- class cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.SHAKE128(digest_size)[source]¶
New in version 2.5.
SHAKE128 is an extendable output function (XOF) based on the same core permutations as SHA3. It allows the caller to obtain an arbitrarily long digest length. Longer lengths, however, do not increase security or collision resistance and lengths shorter than 128 bit (16 bytes) will decrease it.
- Parameters
digest_size (int) – The length of output desired. Must be greater than zero.
- Raises
ValueError – If the
digest_size
is invalid.
- class cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.SHAKE256(digest_size)[source]¶
New in version 2.5.
SHAKE256 is an extendable output function (XOF) based on the same core permutations as SHA3. It allows the caller to obtain an arbitrarily long digest length. Longer lengths, however, do not increase security or collision resistance and lengths shorter than 256 bit (32 bytes) will decrease it.
- Parameters
digest_size (int) – The length of output desired. Must be greater than zero.
- Raises
ValueError – If the
digest_size
is invalid.
SHA-1¶
Warning
SHA-1 is a deprecated hash algorithm that has practical known collision attacks. You are strongly discouraged from using it. Existing applications should strongly consider moving away.
MD5¶
Warning
MD5 is a deprecated hash algorithm that has practical known collision attacks. You are strongly discouraged from using it. Existing applications should strongly consider moving away.
SM3¶
- class cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.SM3[source]¶
New in version 35.0.0.
SM3 is a cryptographic hash function standardized by the Chinese National Cryptography Administration in GM/T 0004-2012. It produces 256-bit message digests. (An English description is available at draft-oscca-cfrg-sm3-02.) This hash should be used for compatibility purposes where required and is not otherwise recommended for use.
Interfaces¶
- class cryptography.hazmat.primitives.hashes.HashContext[source]¶
- algorithm¶
A
HashAlgorithm
that will be used by this context.
- copy()[source]¶
- Returns
A
HashContext
that is a copy of the current context.